Do genetic changes in the brain have a role to play in progressive MS?

MS is a very varied disease, and the course an individual person’s disease will take cannot currently be predicted. It is unclear what factors are responsible for the transition to progressive disease. While large genetic studies have identified over 200 genes involved in the risk of developing relapsing remitting MS, similar studies in progressive MS have not found risk genes that contribute to the transition to progressive forms of MS.

Associate Professor Rubio is examining the DNA and genes of individual brain cells of people with MS. This is because not all cells in our bodies are the same. Despite cells starting off containing the same DNA, individual cells can develop genetic mutations as we age. These mutations in individual cells may influence the way those cells act and function. Associate Professor Rubio is investigating if mutations in individual brain cells in people with MS might be responsible for the development of progressive MS.

In this project, Associate Professor Rubio and his team are isolating single cells from the post-mortem brain tissue of people who had MS during their life. Using a process called Next Generation Sequencing, his team are studying the DNA of these cells.

Associate Professor Rubio and his team have isolated and analysed DNA from nerve cells and cells that are responsible for making myelin, called oligodendrocytes from the MS brain tissue. Using cutting-edge technology, the team have isolated and investigated all the DNA content (also known as the entire genome) from the cells of 6 people with MS, 3 more than initially planned.

In doing this work, the team have also made cutting-edge improvements to the methodology for studying the DNA. These technical developments will have flow on effects to increase the efficiency and accuracy of this research to study the DNA changes that might contribute to disability progression in MS as well benefiting other similar fields of research.

While additional results from this study are currently being analysed, the researcher has identified that some of the same genetic (somatic) mutations exist in both types of cells, nerve cells and oligodendrocytes, studied from the brain of a person with MS. This highlights the possibility that a specific biological mechanism may underpin the risk of progressive MS. These are early results that need further investigation, but this could help reveal targets for the development of new medications to prevent disease progression.

The researchers are preparing a paper on their results so far for publication and have presented their work at a national conference.